CULTURAL HERITAGE OF NEPAL
Introduction to Cultural Heritage
Culture includes language, dress, traditional practice, literature, religion, dances, belief and others. These aspects are the assets of the society. They are also related to the environment, Cultural heritages are those things related to culture which passed on from one generation to next. Culture is linked with the human and social development activities. People cannot be away from their cultural phenomena. Almost all the human activities such as life-styles economic activities social activities are related to the culture. Culture is our life –related practice. Cultural heritages plays a vital role to introduce a country in an international area .Nepal is place of inhabitants of different ethnic groups so, they are different languages dialects, customs, traditions. The cultural heritages of Nepal are listed in the world heritage list by the help of UNESCO. The cultural heritages Nepal enlisted in the world heritage list are as follows:
2) Bhaktapur Durbar Square
3) Changu Narayan Temple
4) Kathmandu Durbar Square
Importance of cultural heritage
The importance of cultural heritages can be explains in a number of ways. Some of them are as follow.
a) Harmony in the society: Cultural heritages are closely related to people. If people practice their religious principle properly they will be in discipline. It helps to develop a harmony in the society.
b) Integral parts of an environment: The components of cultural heritages like ponds, rivers etc. are the part of natural environment and components such as temples, statues, stupas, and houses are part of physical environment. Therefore cultural heritages are integral parts of environment.
c) Sources of information: Cultural heritages contain lots of ancient civilization knowledge. People could study their ancient civilization.
d) Various social activities, national festivals, ceremony, fares and pilgrimage, religious places come under the cultural heritage.
e) Development of religion and culture helps to develop knowledge and skill related to it. It contributes to the development of education skills and arts in the country. It is necessary to study and explore the activities related to our culture to clear originality and values of our culture.
f) Each country has its own cultural heritage. It includes its originality, specialty of tradition and other valuable aspects. These are the most valuable assets of the country.
g) Cultural heritage includes different types of social activities, festivals ceremonies, religious place, religious ceremony etc. carry social values.
h) It has accumulated the originality, characteristics and traditions of the country. These are the precious properties of the nation. They have held the pride of the national.
Main Attractions of Durbar Square:
The Golden Gate: It is the main entrance to the main courtyard of the 55 windows palace.
The Big Bell: There is a bronze bell on the terrace of the stone temple of Bastala Devi , it is also known as 'Bell of the Barking dogs'
The national art Gallery: It contains ancients and medieval paintings belonging to Hindu and Buddhists schools depicting tantrism of various periods and also the descriptions.
Dattatraya Square: The Square takes it name from the Dattatraya temple. The square is famous for ornate Monasteries known as Maths
Bhairavnath Temple: This temple was first built as a one-storey pagoda but was later changed into a tree storey temple in this by king Bhupatindra Malla.
Nyatapole Temple: This five storey pagoda was built in 1702 Ad by King Bhupatindra Malla.
Changu Narayan Temple
Introduction: - Changu Narayan is among one of the most important monuments of the Kathmandu valley. Situated 18 km east of Kathmandu city and standing 1541 meters above the sea level, this monument is significant from religious cultural hi
storical archeological viewpoints. The site is termed with different names such as Champakaranya, Dolashiker and Dolaparuat, but it is famous with the name of Changunarayan. This site was built by king Haridutta Verma in 325 AD. The lord residing in this place is worshipped by th
e Hindus as Garuda Narayan. This temple is one of the glories examples of the splendors of the golden days of Lichhavis.
PATAN DURBAR SQUARE
Patan Durbar Square:
Introduction: Patan Durbar Square is situated in the Mangal Bazar of Lalitpur Municipality of Lalitpur district. This square is located at 5km southeast of Kathmandu and consists of palaces of Malla kings and temples. There are fine pagoda and Shikhara style temples, stone statues and unique artistic Newar architectures in this durbar square. The pala
ces and temples were built during Malla period. Also known as Lalitpur or Yala De (Newari) this square is full of Hindu temples and Buddhist monuments. This diversity of the mediaeval culture that allowed both Hinduism and Buddhism to flourish has left a rich legacy of impressive sightseeing.
Main attractions: One of the most popular site of Patan Durbar square is the Shikhara style Krishna Mandir which was built by king Siddhi Narsingh Malla in the 17th century. It is supposed to be the 1st specimen of Shikhara Style temple all madein stone. Most of the important scenes from the asient Hindu epics like Mahabharata and Ramayan have been engrdued on its frizes.
Patan Museum: The museum inside the Durbar and specializes in bronze statues and religious objects. It is situated in Keshav Narayan Chowk. It was actually opened in 1997 but the building it is situated in dates itself as made in 1734. It is considered as one of the best museum in Asia as a whole.
3 Main Chowks: The main attraction of Patan Durbar Square is the ancient Royal palace indeed. It consists of three main courtyards (Mul chowk, Sundari Chowk and Mani Chowk, Narayan Chowk) The northeastern corner of the Mul chowk is the 3 storied octagonal temple of Taleju Bhawani built by King Shree Niwas Malla in 1667. The Sundari Chowk holds in its centre a masterpiece of stone sculptures popularly known as Royal Bath, Between central Mul chowk and Mani Keshab Narayan Choowk lies a temple of Degu Taleju looking out into the Main Square.
KATHMANDU DURBAR SQUARE
Introduction: Kathmandu Durbar Square is situated at the heart of Kathmandu with old temple palaces, spectacular images and other unique construction. The name Hanuman Dhoka
Square comes form the big statue of Hanuman (the legendary monkey god mentioned in Hindu epic, ie. Ramayana) Dhoka means the big gate to the royal palace. The royal palace dates back to the 14th century. The Hanuman dhoka Durbar square is the historical seat of royalty where the kings are crowned and their coronations are solemnized. Noticing its importance UNESCO listed in the world heritage in 1997.
Kumari Grhar: Kumari (Vestal Virgin) or the living goddess who represents a very ancient Hindu diety of Nepal locally known as Taleju is Buddhist by birth. The temple of kumari is situated in the vicinity of Hanuman Dhoka palace. The building has intricately carved wooden balconies and windows screens. This building was built in 1757 by king Jaya Prakash Malla.
Kasthamandop: Located near the temple of Kumari it is said to have been by king Laxmi Narasimha Malla in 16th century. It is said to be constructed from the wood of a single tree. The city of 'Kathmandu' derives its name from this temple.
Jaishi Dewal: A five minute walk form he kasthamandop is the Shiva temple of Jaishi Dewal which is famous for its erotic carvings it is still one of the main routes of the chariot festival of Indra Jatra and other festivals.
Introduction: Syambhunath is a temple of Lord Buddha and it is situated about 3km west from central kathmandu. This temple is situated on a hillock about 77m high from the ground level. There are two white dome shaped temple called Anantapur and Pratappur on the either side of the main chaitya. This place was listed by the UNESCO in the world heritage list. It is an ancient holy place and in addition its natural features are marvelous. The beautiful view of the whole kathmandu can be observed from swyambhu
nath. "Swyambhu" means 'self-created'. It is said that in ancient times Swyambhu appeared by itself as a beacon of light over a lotus with a thousand of petals and later on a stupa was erected above the site covering the light. It is also said that after the construction of Swyambhu Chaitya and concealment of Swyambhunath Jyotirupa (self-existing light) five Buddhas representing five colors of Swyambhu Jyotirupa appeared. They were namely virochana Aksobhya Ratna Sambhav, Amitabha and Amagdsiddhi. These five Buddhas are enshrined around the main chaitya site. There are many temples in the Swyambhu site. But the main chaitya is one of the worlds most glories Buddhist Chitya. It is said to be about 200 years old. Painted on the four sides of the spire bases are the all seeing eyes of Lord Buddha.
On the western side of the stupa there is a pagoda style temple that houses the Lord Goddess Harati. This goddess is believed to take care of sick children. Close to the Swyambhunath lies a Tibetan Monastery which was founded quite recently(1904 AD) it houses a large gold image of Shakyamuni Buddha. At the beginning of staircases on the eastern side of the Swyambhunath hills there are huge statutes of Aksobhya Buddha and as one ascends further there are 3 more huge statues close to the Swyambhu hill is a small hillock with 1500 years old temple of Manjushree. The main stupa of Swyambhu is surrounded with prayer wheel with Tibetan Mantra 'Om Mani Padme Hon'
Introduction: - Bauddhanath is situated at Chahabil of Kathmandu municipal city. It is the holiest pilgrimage site for Buddhists. The Buddhist Bihar and Statues in Bouddhanath and in Surroundings in artistic and impressive. the area of Bouddhanath is also named as 'Little Tibet' of Nepal by the tourists because it influences Tibetan Culture. The 36m tall Buddhist Stupa has been erected and covers an area of 82.38m × 82.03m. The main entrance lies in the north side. In this ara there are 3 path to go round the Bouddha. The three parts are in the form of 3 layers or stairs. The staris have been constructed to reach the Sanctum on the both sioes of northern part of the stair. There are figures of the guards Bajrapani and Khadangapani on elephant, the state statue reflects in influences of Tibetan culture. On the first path there are 4 to 2 small chaityas in the northern and southern part respectively, after the third stairs a circular sanctum has been constructed at 4 sides of the sanctum. There are numerous figures of Terithangata Buddha with Tarano. Above this are the square shaped part whose front face the four directions of these parts. Two eyes and Pancharastimi are portrayed. There is belief that through eyes of Bouddha 's sight look every one after the 4 squared parts there are 13 layers. The 13 layer represent the wheel in the philosophy to attain the state of Bouddha the 13 layers of knowledge have to be a crossed on the top of the 13 layers. The colours represent Pancha Buddha.
Introduction: - Lumbini is the most sacred place for Buddhist as well as a glorious spot for the country because Sakyamuni or Siddhartha Gautam or Lord Buddha was born here in 623 BC for centuries Buddhist all over the world knew that Lumbini was the birthplace of Lord Buddha, Though its exact location was unknown. The Chinese pilgrims of ancient times Huan Tsang and Faeitian indicated to this area says , Lumbini where the Lord was born is a piece of heaven on Earth and one could see the snow-covered mountains among the splendid garden embedded with monasteries and stupas. Though the pilgrims described the location its exact location still remained uncertain and obscure until Dec 1st 1886. In 1886 German Archaeologist Dr. Alois A. Fuhrer came across a stone pillar and a ascertained beyond doubt that it is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. The Ashoka pillar discovered by the German Archeologist Dr. Fuhrer is the first epigraphic evidence relation to the life history of Gautam Buddha. It is also the most visible Landmark of the Lumbini Garden. It is said that the great Indian emperor Ahoka Visit this area on the twentieth year of his ascendancy to the throne and erected this pillar as homage to the birthplace of the Lord and his visit to this sacred place. The inscription on the pillar confirms that the locations of Lumbini harden as the birthpace of Lord Buddha. The inscription reads "Sakyamuni Buddha the blessed one was born here" The inscription engraved on the pillar indicates the historical evidence that Lord Gautam Buddha was born in Lumbini in Nepal
In addition to the pillar another important shrine is the bas relief statue of Maya Devi Enshrined in a small pagoda the image shows Mayadevi mother of the Lord Supporting herself by holding on with her right hand to the branch of a sal tree with newly born Buddha standing upright an a lotus pedestal on oval halo. Earliest the image of Mayadevi temple was currently dismantled to make way for further excavations which revealed the sanctum sanctorum the exact spot where Buddha was born.
Introduction:- Pashupatinath is the temple which has unified all the Hindu people of Nepal as well as other country. It unifies 86% peo9ple of Nepal. It is situated in the northern part of Kathmandu valley. It lies at the western side of Bagmati river. The Pashupatinath temple is the largest Hundu temple and is considered to be the holies of all Hindu temple.
This temple is tiered with two golden roofs and the doors are made up of silver. There are directions mostly the western door is open. A famous and most venerated Shivalaya is enshrined in the temple. This temple was built by on of the ancient kings and has got a historical significance. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva, one of the 3 most important gods in Hindu religion. Pashupatinath is built in the typical Nepali style. The four glided doors enhances its attractions. The western door is kept open whereas other doors are opened in special occasion only. It has been housing traditional art and architecture of Nepal. It exaplains the civilizations and settlement of Kathmandu valley. It also explains the inter-relationship between nature and culture. The great forest Bagmati river and other natural scene have decorated the Pashupati complex.
In the Pashupati premises there temples of number of god and goddesses like Bhairab , Ananta, Narayan, Kageshwori, Yamaraj and Ganesh. But the main temple is Pashupatinath and Guheswori. Several shrines and idols were established in this temple by different kings of Nepal. The golden foof on it were made by king Shiva Dev the idols of Lava Kush in it were established by king Jaya Prakash Malla. The Kotilinga in it was made by king Siddhi Narasimha Malla. so, different kings have put their effort in making Pashupatinath temple. Many huge gatherings are organized in the temple during many festivals, One of the largest gatherings is in Maha Shivaratri. The temple is crowded with worshippers devotees, Sadhus and observes who come to pay their homage to lord Pashupatinath in the night of Shivaratri, Similarly such gathering are also organized during other festivals like Janai Purnima, Teej etc.